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Where a country does not recognise another, or is in dispute with it, it may prohibit the use of their passport for travel to that other country, or may prohibit entry to holders of that other country's passports, and sometimes to others who have, for example, visited the other country.Some countries and international organisations issue travel documents which are not standard passports, but enable the holder to travel internationally to countries that recognise the documents.The earliest reference to these documents is found in a 1414 Act of Parliament.In 1540, granting travel documents in England became a role of the Privy Council of England, and it was around this time that the term "passport" was used.Historically, legal authority to issue passports is founded on the exercise of each country's executive discretion (or Crown prerogative). Arkelian have argued that evolutions in both the constitutional law of democratic countries and the international law applicable to all countries now render those historical tenets both obsolete and unlawful.Certain legal tenets follow, namely: first, passports are issued in the name of the state; second, no person has a legal right to be issued a passport; third, each country's government, in exercising its executive discretion, has complete and unfettered discretion to refuse to issue or to revoke a passport; and fourth, that the latter discretion is not subject to judicial review. Under some circumstances some countries allow people to hold more than one passport document.In the later part of the nineteenth century and up to World War I, passports were not required, on the whole, for travel within Europe, and crossing a border was a relatively straightforward procedure.

Passport standardization came about in 1980, under the auspices of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).On the whole, documents were not required for travel to sea ports, which were considered open trading points, but documents were required to travel inland from sea ports.King Henry V of England is credited with having invented what some consider the first passport in the modern sense, as a means of helping his subjects prove who they were in foreign lands.Previously issued passports usually remain valid until each expires.A passport holder is normally entitled to enter the country that issued the passport, though some people entitled to a passport may not be full citizens with right of abode.

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